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Over time, many different types of logs have been developed to collect data about wellbores and subsurface formations. This article provides an overview of how various log types correspond to reservoir characteristics. It also provides links to articles discussing the various types of logs and selected applications in depth.
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Over time, many different types of logs have been developed to collect data about wellbores and subsurface formations. This article provides an overview of how various log types correspond to reservoir characteristics. It also provides links to articles discussing the various types of logs and selected applications in depth.
  
==Relating log types and reservoir characteristics==
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== Relating log types and reservoir characteristics ==
'''Fig. 1''' summarizes a number of specialized logging methods and how they relate to reservoir characteristics and the techniques for measuring them.
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 +
'''Fig. 1''' summarizes a number of specialized logging methods and how they relate to reservoir characteristics and the techniques for measuring them.
  
 
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==Types of logs==
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== Types of logs ==
*[[Resistivity and spontaneous (SP) logging]]
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**[[Electrode resistivity devices]]
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*[[Resistivity_and_spontaneous_(SP)_logging|Resistivity and spontaneous (SP) logging]]
**[[Induction logging]]
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**[[Electrode_resistivity_devices|Electrode resistivity devices]]
**[[Microresistivity logs]]
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**[[Induction_logging|Induction logging]]
**[[Spontaneous (SP) log]]
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**[[Microresistivity_logs|Microresistivity logs]]
*[[Acoustic logging]]
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**[[Spontaneous_(SP)_log|Spontaneous (SP) log]]
**[[Cement bond logs]]
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*[[Acoustic_logging|Acoustic logging]]
*[[Nuclear logging]]
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**[[Cement_bond_logs|Cement bond logs]]
**[[Gamma ray logs]]
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*[[Nuclear_logging|Nuclear logging]]
**[[Spectral gamma ray logs]]
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**[[Gamma_ray_logs|Gamma ray logs]]
**[[Density logging]]
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**[[Spectral_gamma_ray_logs|Spectral gamma ray logs]]
**[[Neutron porosity logs]]
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**[[Density_logging|Density logging]]
**[[Pulsed neutron lifetime logs]]
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**[[Neutron_porosity_logs|Neutron porosity logs]]
**[[Carbon oxygen logs]]
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**[[Pulsed_neutron_lifetime_logs|Pulsed neutron lifetime logs]]
**[[Geochemical logs]]
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**[[Carbon_oxygen_logs|Carbon oxygen logs]]
*[[Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging]]
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**[[Geochemical_logs|Geochemical logs]]
*[[Mud logging]]
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*[[Nuclear_magnetic_resonance_(NMR)_logging|Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging]]
*[[Sonic logging]]
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*[[Mud_logging|Mud logging]]
 +
*[[Sonic_logging|Sonic logging]]
 
*Specialty logs
 
*Specialty logs
**[[Openhole caliper logs]]
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**[[Openhole_caliper_logs|Openhole caliper logs]]
**[[Casing collar locator]]
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**[[Casing_collar_locator|Casing collar locator]]
**[[Casing inspection logs]]
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**[[Casing_inspection_logs|Casing inspection logs]]
**[[Borehole imaging]]
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**[[Borehole_imaging|Borehole imaging]]
**[[Borehole gravimetry]]
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**[[Borehole_gravimetry|Borehole gravimetry]]
**[[Downhole magnetic surveys]]
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**[[Downhole_magnetic_surveys|Downhole magnetic surveys]]
*[[Production logging]]
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*[[Production_logging|Production logging]]
**[[Temperature logging]]
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**[[Temperature_logging|Temperature logging]]
**[[Radioactive tracer logging]]
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**[[Radioactive_tracer_logging|Radioactive tracer logging]]
**[[Noise logging]]
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**[[Noise_logging|Noise logging]]
**[[Fluid capacitance logging]]
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**[[Fluid_capacitance_logging|Fluid capacitance logging]]
**[[Focused gamma ray density logging]]
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**[[Focused_gamma_ray_density_logging|Focused gamma ray density logging]]
**[[Unfocused gamma ray density logging]]
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**[[Unfocused_gamma_ray_density_logging|Unfocused gamma ray density logging]]
**[[Diverting spinner flowmeter]]
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**[[Diverting_spinner_flowmeter|Diverting spinner flowmeter]]
**[[Continuous and fullbore spinner flowmeters]]
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**[[Continuous_and_fullbore_spinner_flowmeters|Continuous and fullbore spinner flowmeters]]
 +
 
 +
== Applications and special conditions ==
  
==Applications and special conditions==
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*[[Logging_while_drilling_(LWD)|Logging while drilling (LWD)]]
*[[Logging while drilling (LWD)]]
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**[[LWD_induction_tools|LWD induction tools]]
**[[LWD induction tools]]
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**[[Acoustic_logging_while_drilling|Acoustic logging while drilling]]
**[[Acoustic logging while drilling]]
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**[[Electromagnetic_logging_while_drilling|Electromagnetic logging while drilling]]
**[[Electromagnetic logging while drilling]]
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**[[Nuclear_logging_while_drilling|Nuclear logging while drilling]]
**[[Nuclear logging while drilling]]
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**[[NMR_logging_while_drilling|NMR logging while drilling]]
**[[NMR logging while drilling]]
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*[[Directional_survey|Directional survey]]
*[[Directional survey]]
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**[[Directional_survey_for_3D_reservoir_modeling|Directional survey for 3D reservoir modeling]]
**[[Directional survey for 3D reservoir modeling]]
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*[[Formation_resistivity_determination|Formation resistivity determination]]
*[[Formation resistivity determination]]
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*[[Porosity_determination|Porosity determination]]
*[[Porosity determination]]
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**[[Porosity_evaluation_with_acoustic_logging|Porosity evaluation with acoustic logging]]
**[[Porosity evaluation with acoustic logging]]
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**[[Porosity_determination_with_NMR_logging|Porosity determination with NMR logging]]
**[[Porosity determination with NMR logging]]
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**[[Porosity_for_resource_in_place_calculations|Porosity for resource in place calculations]]
**[[Porosity for resource in place calculations]]
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*[[Permeability_determination|Permeability determination]]
*[[Permeability determination]]
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**[[Permeability_estimation_with_Stoneley_waves|Permeability estimation with Stoneley waves]]
**[[Permeability estimation with Stoneley waves]]
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**[[Permeability_estimation_with_NMR_logging|Permeability estimation with NMR logging]]
**[[Permeability estimation with NMR logging]]
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*[[Fluid_identification_and_characterization|Fluid identification and characterization]]
*[[Fluid identification and characterization]]
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**[[Fluid_typing_with_NMR_logging|Fluid typing with NMR logging]]
**[[Fluid typing with NMR logging]]
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**[[Hydrocarbon_analysis_during_mud_logging|Hydrocarbon analysis during mud logging]]
**[[Hydrocarbon analysis during mud logging]]
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**[[Fluid_identification_logging_in_high_angle_wells|Fluid identification logging in high angle wells]]
**[[Fluid identification logging in high angle wells]]
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*[[Layer_thickness_evaluation|Layer thickness evaluation]]
*[[Layer thickness evaluation]]
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**[[Net_pay_determination|Net pay determination]]
**[[Net pay determination]]
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**[[Fluid_contacts_identification|Fluid contacts identification]]
**[[Fluid contacts identification]]
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*[[Lithology_and_rock_type_determination|Lithology and rock type determination]]
*[[Lithology and rock type determination]]
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*[[Saturation_evaluation|Saturation evaluation]]
*[[Saturation evaluation]]
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**[[Water_saturation_determination|Water saturation determination]]
**[[Water saturation determination]]
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*[[Fractional_flow_evaluation|Fractional flow evaluation]]
*[[Fractional flow evaluation]]
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*[[Fracture_identification_with_acoustic_logging|Fracture identification with acoustic logging]]
*[[Fracture identification with acoustic logging]]
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*[[Overpressure_prediction_using_acoustic_logging|Overpressure prediction using acoustic logging]]
*[[Overpressure prediction using acoustic logging]]
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*[[Geological_applications_of_acoustic_logging|Geological applications of acoustic logging]]
*[[Geological applications of acoustic logging]]
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*[[Rock_mechanical_properties|Rock mechanical properties]]
*[[Rock mechanical properties]]
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*[[Anisotropy_analysis|Anisotropy analysis]]
*[[Anisotropy analysis]]
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*[[NMR_applications|NMR applications]]
*[[NMR applications]]
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*[[Cuttings_analysis_during_mud_logging|Cuttings analysis during mud logging]]
*[[Cuttings analysis during mud logging]]
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*[[Formation_evaluation_during_mud_logging|Formation evaluation during mud logging]]
*[[Formation evaluation during mud logging]]
 
 
*Production logging throughout well life
 
*Production logging throughout well life
**[[Production logs to assess gas kick]]
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**[[Production_logs_to_assess_gas_kick|Production logs to assess gas kick]]
**[[Profiling commingled gas production]]
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**[[Profiling_commingled_gas_production|Profiling commingled gas production]]
**[[Profiling oil production under WAG recovery]]
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**[[Profiling_oil_production_under_WAG_recovery|Profiling oil production under WAG recovery]]
**[[Gas blowout after abandonment]]
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**[[Gas_blowout_after_abandonment|Gas blowout after abandonment]]
**[[Production logging application tables]]
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**[[Production_logging_application_tables|Production logging application tables]]
 
*Log interpretation
 
*Log interpretation
**[[Advanced acoustic data analysis]]
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**[[Advanced_acoustic_data_analysis|Advanced acoustic data analysis]]
**[[Well log interpretation]]
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**[[Well_log_interpretation|Well log interpretation]]
**[[Nuclear log interpretation]]
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**[[Nuclear_log_interpretation|Nuclear log interpretation]]
**[[Log analysis in shaly formations]]
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**[[Log_analysis_in_shaly_formations|Log analysis in shaly formations]]
**[[Multiple log interpretation]]
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**[[Multiple_log_interpretation|Multiple log interpretation]]
  
 
== Continued advancement ==
 
== Continued advancement ==
There are two principal drivers for the further advancement of logging technologies.
 
  
The first is the need for improved reservoir characterization to help us deal with problematic reservoirs that have low-permeability characteristics, thin beds, laminations, low-resistivity-contrast pay, and fracture networks. Fracture networks lead us to the question of [[Carbonate reservoir geology|carbonates]] and their petrophysical differences from [[Siliciclastic reservoir geology|clastic]] rocks. One might ask why it is that with so much technology available, the industry still perceives a shortfall in its interpretative capability. The reason is that recent attention has been directed at data acquisition and management rather than methods of interpreting the data themselves. Thus, for example, we have not yet succeeded in reconciling petrophysical data measured at different scales. The gap between our ability to measure and our ability to interpret the measurements widened still further during the 1990s, the decade of the horizontal well. This drove the analysis of downhole measurements further into three dimensions and emphasized the need for us to get more out of our data if our reservoir models are to deliver the greatest benefit.  
+
There are two principal drivers for the further advancement of logging technologies.
  
The second technology driver is the cost-effectiveness of multiwell platforms from which deviated, extended-reach, horizontal, and multilateral wells can be drilled to target hydrocarbon accumulations that have been identified in a reservoir model. This heralds a further thrust in the need to drill more difficult subsurface environments in a way that allows full control of the wellbore trajectory. This, in turn, will require a full casing- and cement-evaluation service, especially with regard to the monitoring of casing deformation. Only in this way can one be assured of an absence of flow constrictions or impediments to tool deployment.  
+
The first is the need for improved reservoir characterization to help us deal with problematic reservoirs that have low-permeability characteristics, thin beds, laminations, low-resistivity-contrast pay, and fracture networks. Fracture networks lead us to the question of [[Carbonate_reservoir_geology|carbonates]] and their petrophysical differences from [[Siliciclastic_reservoir_geology|clastic]] rocks. One might ask why it is that with so much technology available, the industry still perceives a shortfall in its interpretative capability. The reason is that recent attention has been directed at data acquisition and management rather than methods of interpreting the data themselves. Thus, for example, we have not yet succeeded in reconciling petrophysical data measured at different scales. The gap between our ability to measure and our ability to interpret the measurements widened still further during the 1990s, the decade of the horizontal well. This drove the analysis of downhole measurements further into three dimensions and emphasized the need for us to get more out of our data if our reservoir models are to deliver the greatest benefit.
  
Both reservoir characterization and the cost-effectiveness of multiwell platforms will continue to benefit from further developments in data recording, transmittal, processing, and visualization, which have underpinned the technical progress made to date.  
+
The second technology driver is the cost-effectiveness of multiwell platforms from which deviated, extended-reach, horizontal, and multilateral wells can be drilled to target hydrocarbon accumulations that have been identified in a reservoir model. This heralds a further thrust in the need to drill more difficult subsurface environments in a way that allows full control of the wellbore trajectory. This, in turn, will require a full casing- and cement-evaluation service, especially with regard to the monitoring of casing deformation. Only in this way can one be assured of an absence of flow constrictions or impediments to tool deployment.
 +
 
 +
Both reservoir characterization and the cost-effectiveness of multiwell platforms will continue to benefit from further developments in data recording, transmittal, processing, and visualization, which have underpinned the technical progress made to date.
  
 
== Noteworthy papers in OnePetro ==
 
== Noteworthy papers in OnePetro ==
 +
 
Use this section to list papers in OnePetro that a reader who wants to learn more should definitely read
 
Use this section to list papers in OnePetro that a reader who wants to learn more should definitely read
  
 
== External links ==
 
== External links ==
 +
 
Use this section to provide links to relevant material on websites other than PetroWiki and OnePetro
 
Use this section to provide links to relevant material on websites other than PetroWiki and OnePetro
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
  
[[PEH:Specialized Well-Logging Topics]]
+
[[PEH:Specialized_Well-Logging_Topics]]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:5.6.4 Drillstem/well testing]]

Revision as of 16:14, 3 June 2015

Over time, many different types of logs have been developed to collect data about wellbores and subsurface formations. This article provides an overview of how various log types correspond to reservoir characteristics. It also provides links to articles discussing the various types of logs and selected applications in depth.

Relating log types and reservoir characteristics

Fig. 1 summarizes a number of specialized logging methods and how they relate to reservoir characteristics and the techniques for measuring them.

Types of logs

Applications and special conditions

Continued advancement

There are two principal drivers for the further advancement of logging technologies.

The first is the need for improved reservoir characterization to help us deal with problematic reservoirs that have low-permeability characteristics, thin beds, laminations, low-resistivity-contrast pay, and fracture networks. Fracture networks lead us to the question of carbonates and their petrophysical differences from clastic rocks. One might ask why it is that with so much technology available, the industry still perceives a shortfall in its interpretative capability. The reason is that recent attention has been directed at data acquisition and management rather than methods of interpreting the data themselves. Thus, for example, we have not yet succeeded in reconciling petrophysical data measured at different scales. The gap between our ability to measure and our ability to interpret the measurements widened still further during the 1990s, the decade of the horizontal well. This drove the analysis of downhole measurements further into three dimensions and emphasized the need for us to get more out of our data if our reservoir models are to deliver the greatest benefit.

The second technology driver is the cost-effectiveness of multiwell platforms from which deviated, extended-reach, horizontal, and multilateral wells can be drilled to target hydrocarbon accumulations that have been identified in a reservoir model. This heralds a further thrust in the need to drill more difficult subsurface environments in a way that allows full control of the wellbore trajectory. This, in turn, will require a full casing- and cement-evaluation service, especially with regard to the monitoring of casing deformation. Only in this way can one be assured of an absence of flow constrictions or impediments to tool deployment.

Both reservoir characterization and the cost-effectiveness of multiwell platforms will continue to benefit from further developments in data recording, transmittal, processing, and visualization, which have underpinned the technical progress made to date.

Noteworthy papers in OnePetro

Use this section to list papers in OnePetro that a reader who wants to learn more should definitely read

External links

Use this section to provide links to relevant material on websites other than PetroWiki and OnePetro

See also

PEH:Specialized_Well-Logging_Topics