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Gas turbine meter

Gas turbine meters are velocity meters, and the upper velocity limit is essentially unchanged by pressure.

There are two main standards for turbine meters: ISO Standard 9951, Measurement of Gas Flow in Closed Conduits: Turbine Meters and OIML R32, Rotary Piston Gas and Turbine Gas Meters.

A basic turbine meter consists of:

  • A pressure-containing meter housing with end flanges
  • A set of internals, incorporating the turbine wheel and gearing mechanisms
  • A means of counting the turbine wheel revolutions
The operation of a turbine meter is based on the measurement of the velocity of gas. The flowing gas is accelerated and conditioned by the meter’s straightening section. The integrated straightening vanes prepare the gas flow profile by removing undesirable swirl and asymmetry before the gas flows over the freely rotating turbine wheel. The dynamic forces of the flowing gas cause the rotor to rotate. The turbine wheel is mounted on the main shaft, with high-precision, low-friction ball bearings. The turbine wheel has helical blades that have a known angle relative to the gas flow. The gas flow drives the turbine wheel at an angular velocity, which, in the linear range of a well-designed meter, is proportional with the gas velocity. Using a gearing mechanism, the rotating turbine wheel drives the mechanical counter. In addition, the rotating blade can also be used to generate pulses via a proximity sensor. Each pulse detected is equivalent to a discrete volume of gas at actual conditions (i.e., the total number of pulses collected in any period of time represents the gross observed volume during that period). For each meter, a calibration characteristic (K factor) is required. This factor is expressed in pulses per volume and is given by the manufacturer.

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