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Casing collar locator
The casing-collar locator (CCL) is an important tool because it is used for depth control. When combined with a gamma ray log, it allows depth correlation of a cased-hole logging run with the openhole logs and, therefore, reservoir units or zones. This is essential for subsequent downhole operations such as perforating. Because it constitutes the primary depth control, the CCL is run on almost every cased-hole tool string. The tool comprises a coil-and-magnet arrangement with a downhole amplifier. The most sensitive of these arrangements is two like-facing magnetic poles positioned on either side of a central coil. The magnetic lines of flux are distorted when the tool passes a location at which the metallic casing is enlarged by a collar. This distortion gives rise to a classical change in the magnetic field around the conducting coil, within which current is induced. The signal is amplified and recorded at the surface in the form of a voltage spike known as a collar "kick."
CCLs can be run in standard wireline logging mode or on a slickline (i.e., a nonconducting line). Pure-memory slickline CCLs record their data simultaneously with, for example, a full production logging suite, but these CCL data are not available until the memory section has been retrieved and downloaded at the surface. Real-time slickline tools convert the voltage spike to a tension spike by using spring-loaded electromagnets that increase the apparent drag through the greater attraction between the electromagnets and the casing at collar locations. The tension spike can be detected at the surface. CCLs have had to be modified for coiled-tubing applications. The primary difference arose because the heaviness of a coiled-tubing string did not allow relatively small tension spikes to be detected with confidence. For this reason, a solenoid/piston/valve arrangement is used to transmit pressure spikes through the fluid within the coiled tubing to the surface, where they can readily be detected. These tools have recently been improved for high-pressure/high-temperature applications. Some types of downhole tractor that are used to deploy tool strings in deviated wells also have the ability to produce a CCL during the tractor operation and thereby provide the same depth control.
- Larimore, D.R., Fehrmann, G.Z., and White, S. 1997. Field Cases of Cost Efficient Well Interventions Performed With Advanced Slickline Technology. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 14-16 April 1997. SPE-38097-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38097-MS.
- Connell, M.L., Howard, R.G., Glennon, C.J. et al. 2000. High-Pressure/High-Temperature Coiled Tubing Casing Collar Locator Provides Accurate Depth Control for Single-Trip Perforating. Presented at the SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Roundtable, Houston, Texas, 5-6 April 2000. SPE-60698-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/60698-MS.
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