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Help:Citing references

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SPE has an official style guide covering the proper citation format for various types of documents. While it is great if references to items on a page or links to papers in OnePetro follow this format, we don't want style to get in the way of people adding valuable citations and links into wiki pages. If you don't have all of the information specified in SPE's reference style, include enough information so that someone else could find the document you are referencing.

Information to include

Be sure that any references or links to papers in OnePetro include the following:

  • Author name(s) -- include at least the first author, preferably the first 3, followed by et al. if there are additional authors.
  • Title of the book, paper, or other document
  • Year that the document was published
  • Some indication of the source (publisher, journal, conference, or similar). While SPE style abbreviates the names of many journals, there's nothing wrong with spelling out the full name.
  • For SPE papers, inclusion of the paper number is always helpful
  • If you can create a link to the document online (in OnePetro or elsewhere), that is also very helpful for other readers interested in the topic. Where possible, using the DOI to make the link helps to ensure that the link won't be broken in the future as sites change.

Each reference type has its own specific citation style, examples of which you will find in subsequent sections on this page.

SPE references


PetroWiki. 2013. Phase characterization of in-situ fluids. (11 September 2013 revision). (accessed 22 December, 2014).

Conference paper

White, C.D. and Horne, R.N. 1987. Computing Absolute Transmissibility in the Presence of Fine-Scale Heterogeneity. Paper SPE 16011 presented at the SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, San Antonio, Texas, 1–4 February.

Published journal paper

King, M.J. and Mansfield, M. 1999. Flow Simulation of Geologic Models. SPE Res Eval & Eng 2 (4): 351–367. SPE-57469-PA.

SPE paper published in Transactions (1921–1995)

Harris, P.C. and Reidenbach, V.G. 1987. High-Temperature Rheological Study of Foam Fracturing Fluids. In Transactions of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, Vol. 283, Part I, 613–619. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers. ISBN 1-55563-013-8

SPE papers not originating from a conference or journal

Johnson, B. 1990. Reservoir Management. Paper SPE 36514 available from SPE, Richardson, Texas [Note: these papers will generally not have DOIs.]

SPE Distinguished Author Series

Clegg, J.D., Bucaram, S.M., and Hein, N.W. Jr. 1993. Recommendations and Comparisons for Selecting Artificial-Lift Methods. Distinguished Author Series, J Pet Technol 45 (12): 1128–1167. SPE-24834.

SPE books (including monographs, textbooks, and reprints)

Matthews, C.S. and Russell, D.G. 1967. Pressure Buildup and Flow Tests in Wells, Vol. 1, 13–16. Richardson, Texas: Monograph Series, SPE

Bourgoyne, A.T., Chenevert, M.E., and Millhein, K.K. 1986. Applied Drilling Engineering, Vol. 2, 173–175. Richardson, Texas: Textbook Series, SPE

Chambers, M.R. ed. 2002. Multilateral Wells, Vol. 53, 15–21. Richardson, Texas: Reprint Series, SPE

Poston, S.W. and Poe, B.D. Jr. 2008. Analysis of Production Decline Curves, 63–64. Richardson, Texas, SPE

Non-SPE books

Book with one author

Ahmed, T. 2006. Reservoir Engineering Handbook, third edition. Burlington, Massachusetts: Gulf Professional Publishing/Elsevier.

Book with two authors

Jaeger, J.C. and Cook, N.G.W. 1979. Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics. London: Chapman and Hall.

Book with more than three authors

O’Hagan, A., Buck, C.E., Daneshkhah, A. et al. 2006. Uncertain Judgements: Eliciting Experts’ Probabilities. West Sussex, UK: Statistics in Practice, John Wiley and Sons

Book with editor attributed

Pirson, S.J. ed. 1958. Oil Reservoir Engineering, 56–58. New York City: McGraw-Hill Book Company

Book with author and translator attributed

Snyyvek, J.B. 1968. Petroleum Science, second edition, trans. L. Friedman. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Oilfield Science Series, Elsevier (1977)

Chapter or section in a book (author and editor attributed)

Somasundaran, P. 1975. Interfacial Chemistry of Particulate Flotation. In Advances in Interfacial Phenomena of Particulate/Solution/Gas Systems, ed. P. Somasundaran and R.B. Grieves, Chap. 1, 1–15. New York City: Symposium Series, AIChE.

Foreign title (translated, translator attributed)

Darcy, H.P.G. 1856. The Public Fountains of the City of Dijon (Les Fontaines publiques de la ville de Dijon), trans. P. Bobeck. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing Co.

Electronic book

Lemmon, E.W., McLinden, M.O., and Friend, D.G. 2008. Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems. In NIST Chemistry WebBook: NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, ed. P.J. Linstrom and W.G. Mallard. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), (accessed 8 January 2010).

StatSoft, Inc. 2011. Electronic Statistics Textbook. Tulsa, Oklahoma: StatSoft.

Non-SPE journal articles

Article with one author

Journel, A.G. 2002. Combining Knowledge From Diverse Sources: An Alternative to Traditional Data Independence Hypotheses. Mathematical Geology 34 (5): 573–596.

Article with two authors

Ashby, M.F. and Hallam, S.D. 1986. The failure of brittle solids containing small cracks under compressive stress states. Acta Metallurgica 34 (3): 497–510.

Article with more than three authors

Jessen, K., Michelsen, M., Stenby, E.H., et al. 1998. Global Approach for Calculation of Minimum Miscibility Pressure. Fluid Phase Equilibria 153 (2): 251–263.

Article without author attributed

Doubling of reserves seen possible. 1976. Oil & Gas J. 74 (31 May): 22–25.

Foreign language article (title translated)

Verigin, N.N. 1952. On the pressurized forcing of binder solutions into rocks in order to increase the strength and imperviousness to water of the foundations of hydrotechnical installations (in Russian). Akademija Nauk SSR Izvestija Odt. Tehn. Nauk 5: 674–687.

Other non-SPE sources

Meeting paper included in a printed proceedings volume

Eude, T., Grisel, R., Cherifi, H., and Debrie, R. 1994. On the distribution of the DCT coefficients. Proc., IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Processing, Adelaide, Australia, Vol. 5, 365–368

van Bergen, F., Pagnier, H.J.M., van der Meer, L.G.H., van den Belt, F.J.G., Winthaegen, P.L.A., and Westerhoff, R.S. 2003. Development of a Field Experiment of CO2 Storage in Coal Seams in the Silesian Coal Basin of Poland (RECOPOL). In Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, 1–4 October 2002, Kyoto, Japan, ed. J.J. Gale and Y. Kaya, Vol. 1, 569–574. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science


Katz, J. 1998. Luring the Lurkers. Slashdot, 29 December 1998, (accessed 23 June 2011)

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). 2011. AAPG Learn! Blog, (accessed 23 June 2011)

Congressional hearing (testimony)

Happer, W. 2009. Climate Change. Oral testimony given before the 111th Congress Full Committee hearing “Update on the Latest Global Warming Science,” US Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, Washington, DC, 25 February

Court case

El Paso Firemen and Policemen’s Pension Fund v. Stone Energy Corporation. 2006. Case 6:05-cv-02088-TLM-MEM, Doc. 61 (W.D. La. 14 June 2006), (downloaded 22 June 2010)

Groucho Marx Prods. v. Playboy Enters. 1977. No. 77, Civ. 1782 (S.D. N.Y. 30 December 1977)

Thesis or dissertation

Thomas, O. 2002. The Data as the Model: Interpreting Permanent Downhole Gauge Data Without Knowing the Reservoir Model. MS thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, California (June 2002)

Dong, C. 2001. Acidizing of Naturally-Fractured Reservoir Formations. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (August 2001)


Wikipedia. 2010. Semipermeable membrane (4 October 2010 revision), (accessed 20 December 2010).

Note: All wiki entries must include the specific revision date for the article being cited. If the author and the site name are the same (as with Wikipedia), omit the site name the second time.