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Cations on cation exchange sites or in the soil solution that can participate in the cation exchange process in soil. The most common exchangeable cations in soils are calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, aluminum, and hydrogen. Other exchangeable cations include ammonium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and other positively charged dis solved ions in the soil. Exchangeable cations are in dynamic equilibrium between the soil solution and adsorption on cation exchange sites.