You must log in to edit PetroWiki. Help with editing

Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. More information


Difference between revisions of "Pump drivers"

PetroWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
 
Line 1: Line 1:
 
Pump drivers include electric motors, steam turbines, expansion turbines, gas turbines, and internal combustion engines.
 
Pump drivers include electric motors, steam turbines, expansion turbines, gas turbines, and internal combustion engines.
  
==Electric motors==
+
== Electric motors ==
 +
 
 
Three-phase alternating-current induction motors are the most commonly used driver for pumps because of the desirable characteristics of electricity as a power source and because the standard rotative speeds (1,750 and 3,500 rev/min) are well suited for driver centrifugal pumps. See [[Electrical_systems|Electrical Systems]]
 
Three-phase alternating-current induction motors are the most commonly used driver for pumps because of the desirable characteristics of electricity as a power source and because the standard rotative speeds (1,750 and 3,500 rev/min) are well suited for driver centrifugal pumps. See [[Electrical_systems|Electrical Systems]]
  
==Steam turbines==
+
== Steam turbines ==
Large gas plants containing boilers use steam turbines to drive large pumps such as lean-oil pumps, boiler feed-water pumps, and solvent-circulation pumps. It is a common practice to select a turbine rated at pump speed and power requirements and to rely on the inherent flexibility of the turbine to provide for a margin of error.  
+
 
 +
Large gas plants containing boilers use steam turbines to drive large pumps such as lean-oil pumps, boiler feed-water pumps, and solvent-circulation pumps. It is a common practice to select a turbine rated at pump speed and power requirements and to rely on the inherent flexibility of the turbine to provide for a margin of error.
 +
 
 +
== Expansion and hydraulic turbines ==
 +
 
 +
High-pressure process streams in gas plants commonly have pressure reduced for further processing. This energy can be recovered by expansion turbines, which in turn drive pumps or generators. If the stream to be expanded is liquid (i.e., rich oil or solvents), the type of turbine is generally a centrifugal pump with the inlet and outlet reversed and is called a hydraulic turbine. If the stream to be expanded is gas, the type of turbine is called an expander.
 +
 
 +
High-pressure liquid enters the hydraulic turbine through the centrifugal pump’s discharge flange and the low-pressure fluid exits through the pump’s suction flange. Hydraulic turbines have proved economical when the developed power exceeds 160 BHP, the flow exceeds 200 gal/min, and the inlet pressure exceeds 200 psig.
 +
 
 +
The most important design consideration is handling flow and pressure-differential fluctuations so that adequate shaft power can be provided to the driven equipment at all times. This is done in one of two ways: a supplemental electric motor can be provided in tandem with the hydraulic turbine, or a continuous bypass can be installed around the hydraulic turbine that absorbs all process flow variation, always leaving the minimum required flow through the turbine.
  
==Expansion and hydraulic turbines==
+
A critical factor in the design of the hydraulic turbine is the rate of gas evolution as it flows through the turbine. Design specifications should include a complete analysis of the liquid stream so that the designer can optimize the flow passages. A pump failure by overspeed exists when the flow through the driver pump is suddenly reduced or stopped before flow through the turbine is shut off. To avoid this type of failure, an overspeed trip device should be specified.
High-pressure process streams in gas plants commonly have pressure reduced for further processing. This energy can be recovered by expansion turbines, which in turn drive pumps or generators. If the stream to be expanded is liquid (i.e., rich oil or solvents), the type of turbine is generally a centrifugal pump with the inlet and outlet reversed and is called a hydraulic turbine. If the stream to be expanded is gas, the type of turbine is called an expander.  
 
  
High-pressure liquid enters the hydraulic turbine through the centrifugal pump’s discharge flange and the low-pressure fluid exits through the pump’s suction flange. Hydraulic turbines have proved economical when the developed power exceeds 160 BHP, the flow exceeds 200 gal/min, and the inlet pressure exceeds 200 psig.  
+
Hydraulic turbines normally use mechanical shaft seals identical to those applied to pumps. External flushing is generally required to either prevent gas evolution within the mechanical seal area or to minimize dirt and other solids from entering this seal area.
  
The most important design consideration is handling flow and pressure-differential fluctuations so that adequate shaft power can be provided to the driven equipment at all times. This is done in one of two ways: a supplemental electric motor can be provided in tandem with the hydraulic turbine, or a continuous bypass can be installed around the hydraulic turbine that absorbs all process flow variation, always leaving the minimum required flow through the turbine.
+
== Gas turbines ==
  
A critical factor in the design of the hydraulic turbine is the rate of gas evolution as it flows through the turbine. Design specifications should include a complete analysis of the liquid stream so that the designer can optimize the flow passages. A pump failure by overspeed exists when the flow through the driver pump is suddenly reduced or stopped before flow through the turbine is shut off. To avoid this type of failure, an overspeed trip device should be specified.  
+
The trend toward plants with minimal operator attendance indicates that steam may become obsolete. Gas-fired turbines are the logical choice to replace the steam turbine for large pump drives. (See [[Prime_movers|Prime Movers]]).
  
Hydraulic turbines normally use mechanical shaft seals identical to those applied to pumps. External flushing is generally required to either prevent gas evolution within the mechanical seal area or to minimize dirt and other solids from entering this seal area.
+
== Internal combustion engines ==
  
==Gas turbines==
+
Internal-combustion engines are used to drive pumps when other power is not available or when a standby energy source is desirable. The most common application in upstream production operations is for fire water pumps and for crude-oil shipping pumps in offshore applications. See [[Prime_movers|Prime movers]]
The trend toward plants with minimal operator attendance indicates that steam may become obsolete. Gas-fired turbines are the logical choice to replace the steam turbine for large pump drives. (See [[Prime_movers|Prime Movers]]).
 
  
==Internal combustion engines==
+
== References ==
Internal-combustion engines are used to drive pumps when other power is not available or when a standby energy source is desirable. The most common application in upstream production operations is for fire water pumps and for crude-oil shipping pumps in offshore applications. See [[Prime movers]]
 
  
==References==
 
 
Use this section for citation of items referenced in the text to show your sources. [The sources should be available to the reader, i.e., not an internal company document.]
 
Use this section for citation of items referenced in the text to show your sources. [The sources should be available to the reader, i.e., not an internal company document.]
  
==Noteworthy papers in OnePetro==
+
== Noteworthy papers in OnePetro ==
 +
 
 
Use this section to list papers in OnePetro that a reader who wants to learn more should definitely read
 
Use this section to list papers in OnePetro that a reader who wants to learn more should definitely read
  
==External links==
+
== External links ==
 +
 
 
Use this section to provide links to relevant material on websites other than PetroWiki and OnePetro
 
Use this section to provide links to relevant material on websites other than PetroWiki and OnePetro
  
==See also==
+
== See also ==
[[PEH%3APumps|PEH:Pumps]]
+
 
 +
[[PEH:Pumps|PEH:Pumps]]
 +
 
 +
[[Pumps|Pumps]]
 +
 
 +
[[Positive_displacement_pumps|Positive displacement pumps]]
 +
 
 +
[[Centrifugal_pumps|Centrifugal pumps]]
  
[[Pumps]]
+
[[Electrical_systems|Electrical systems]]
  
[[Positive displacement pumps]]
+
[[Prime_movers|Prime movers]]
  
[[Centrifugal pumps]]
 
  
[[Electrical systems]]
 
  
[[Prime movers]]
+
[[Category:4.1.6 Compressors, engines and turbines]]

Revision as of 18:14, 1 June 2015

Pump drivers include electric motors, steam turbines, expansion turbines, gas turbines, and internal combustion engines.

Electric motors

Three-phase alternating-current induction motors are the most commonly used driver for pumps because of the desirable characteristics of electricity as a power source and because the standard rotative speeds (1,750 and 3,500 rev/min) are well suited for driver centrifugal pumps. See Electrical Systems

Steam turbines

Large gas plants containing boilers use steam turbines to drive large pumps such as lean-oil pumps, boiler feed-water pumps, and solvent-circulation pumps. It is a common practice to select a turbine rated at pump speed and power requirements and to rely on the inherent flexibility of the turbine to provide for a margin of error.

Expansion and hydraulic turbines

High-pressure process streams in gas plants commonly have pressure reduced for further processing. This energy can be recovered by expansion turbines, which in turn drive pumps or generators. If the stream to be expanded is liquid (i.e., rich oil or solvents), the type of turbine is generally a centrifugal pump with the inlet and outlet reversed and is called a hydraulic turbine. If the stream to be expanded is gas, the type of turbine is called an expander.

High-pressure liquid enters the hydraulic turbine through the centrifugal pump’s discharge flange and the low-pressure fluid exits through the pump’s suction flange. Hydraulic turbines have proved economical when the developed power exceeds 160 BHP, the flow exceeds 200 gal/min, and the inlet pressure exceeds 200 psig.

The most important design consideration is handling flow and pressure-differential fluctuations so that adequate shaft power can be provided to the driven equipment at all times. This is done in one of two ways: a supplemental electric motor can be provided in tandem with the hydraulic turbine, or a continuous bypass can be installed around the hydraulic turbine that absorbs all process flow variation, always leaving the minimum required flow through the turbine.

A critical factor in the design of the hydraulic turbine is the rate of gas evolution as it flows through the turbine. Design specifications should include a complete analysis of the liquid stream so that the designer can optimize the flow passages. A pump failure by overspeed exists when the flow through the driver pump is suddenly reduced or stopped before flow through the turbine is shut off. To avoid this type of failure, an overspeed trip device should be specified.

Hydraulic turbines normally use mechanical shaft seals identical to those applied to pumps. External flushing is generally required to either prevent gas evolution within the mechanical seal area or to minimize dirt and other solids from entering this seal area.

Gas turbines

The trend toward plants with minimal operator attendance indicates that steam may become obsolete. Gas-fired turbines are the logical choice to replace the steam turbine for large pump drives. (See Prime Movers).

Internal combustion engines

Internal-combustion engines are used to drive pumps when other power is not available or when a standby energy source is desirable. The most common application in upstream production operations is for fire water pumps and for crude-oil shipping pumps in offshore applications. See Prime movers

References

Use this section for citation of items referenced in the text to show your sources. [The sources should be available to the reader, i.e., not an internal company document.]

Noteworthy papers in OnePetro

Use this section to list papers in OnePetro that a reader who wants to learn more should definitely read

External links

Use this section to provide links to relevant material on websites other than PetroWiki and OnePetro

See also

PEH:Pumps

Pumps

Positive displacement pumps

Centrifugal pumps

Electrical systems

Prime movers