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It is widely accepted that global natural gas demand will continue to grow for the foreseeable future, possibly doubling every decade. Major new upstream developments, together with midstream transportation systems and downstream feedstock projects, are already progressing in all world areas. As this gas revolution evolves, there will be a dramatic rise in the requirement for high-accuracy measurement at every point in the gas value chain (Fig. 1).
This value chain can be subdivided into four major categories within which metering is carried out:
- Gas production
- Gas transmission
- Gas storage
- Gas distribution
Within these categories, there is a huge array of different gas-metering applications and a similar number of potential solutions. This can lead to confusion when selecting the optimum solution for the application.
Two of the traditional approaches have been to use orifice plates or turbine meters. Over the last few years, however, newer technologies, in particular ultrasonic and Coriolis meters, are being used more frequently. Since these are new technologies, many practitioners are unaware of how they compare with the traditional technologies, such as orifice and turbine meters. In particular, it can be difficult to know what flowmeter is most appropriate for a particular project, application, or specific set of circumstances. The aim of this chapter is to address this issue and hopefully provide some pointers to assist engineers with flowmeter selection within the four major categories.
Types of gas meters
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